European Journal of Human Genetics.
Parts of Macau were first loaned to the Portuguese by China as a trading centre in the 16th century, with the Portuguese required to administrate the city under Chinese authority.
The turmoil of the 19th century, followed by the political upheaval of the early 20th century, compelled many residents of Guangdong to migrate overseas in search of a better future.
On the other hand, the diversity of the southern and south-eastern dialects, and also the archaic character of several of them, bears witness to the relative stability of the peoples established in these regions.
Cantonese immigrants in the United States and Australia participated in the and the of 1854 onwards, while found employment in sugarcane plantations as contract labourers.
Sun Yat-sen's revolutionary army was largely made up of Cantonese, and many of the early revolutionary leaders were also Cantonese.